Just as "training is not just telling" it can be said that "coaching is not just showing." The members of the TWI Service recognized the value of coaching when they wrote "coaching is the key to continued use" and when they included it as a main point in getting continuing results from training programs.
What is Coaching?
There are at least five separate points to coaching. Throughout the coaching session, the coach should not lecture to the 'coachee', but should ask questions and supply answers as needed. It is too easy to just tell the person everything you know about the job. The method of coaching is to find out what the person does not know, fill in those gaps and then check for understanding and retention. The objective is to get the person to completely understand the job and also have the desire and ability to do it properly. Note that it is not intended that all five points are covered in the order listed or that all five will be delivered during the same meeting. Coaching can, and should, cover a span of time.
Reasons for the job
The adult learner wants to know the reasons s/he is doing what they are doing, why it should be done in a particular way, and what will happen if it is done incorrectly. If, for example, you are coaching someone in doing JIT, you should tell the person why training is important and why JIT is the correct way to train. Proper training reduces scrap and injury and improves quality and productivity, for example.
Principles of the job
It is important to tell the person the main principles s/he will be using and the reasons for them. For example, JIT includes Important Steps, Key Points, and Reasons, which divide a job into main actions, variations of those actions and reasons for the specific variations. Knowing the principles of the job helps the person understand it better.
Work on the job together
The person has already been trained to do the job, so you must use your judgment on how much you should do. The intent is to do a complete job the exact way it should be done and have as much as possible done by the 'coachee'. Working on the job together means that the coach offers guidance and assistance, but does little of the work.
Have the 'coachee' do a job alone
Once the coach believes the person can do the job alone, the person should do just that. The understanding is that the coach will check back to see how the person is doing.
Give credit for good results and effort
Giving credit should not be overdone, but the person should know that you appreciate what he has accomplished and the effort extended. It should also be understood that this contact will continue because people grow and develop and situations change.
Where and When should coaching be used?
You can see that this is very similar to the procedure in JIT where there is a dialogue between the instructor and the trainee. In fact, this coaching technique should be used in a JIT session. In a proper JIT session, the Participants should be coached in preparing their demonstrations once they have learned the 4-Step Method and how to use a Job Breakdown Sheet (JBS). If the trainer lets the Participants attempt to write their first JBS by themselves, they most likely will make errors, which will then have to be "unlearned" before the correct action can be learned.
Thus, coaching will begin after training has concluded and will continue well into the future. Because of this, a good TWI Trainer will develop coaches during the delivery of a TWI Program so that a coach will be available after the training os over. It does not take delivery to too many groups before the trainer gets overwhelmed with coaching responsibilities.